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glossary of the great lakespage
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St. Louis River Management Plan
St. Louis River Remedial Action Plan St. Louis River RAP
St. Louis Riverwatch
Science Advisory Board SAB
Scientific and Natural Areas SNA
Sea Grant
Sea Lamprey
Sea Lamprey Control Program
Seaway Port Authority of Duluth
Secchi Disk Depth SDD
Secondary Treatment
Section 10 10
Section 118 118
Section 305 (b) 305(b)
Section 319 319
Section 401 401
Section 402 402
Section 404 404
Section 6217 6217
Sediments
Seiche
Sequencing
Shorelands
Shoreland Management Program
Sigurd Olson Environmental Institute
Site-Specific Criteria
Soil and Water Conservation Districts SWCDs
Soil Conservation Service SCS
Source Reduction
Special Designation
Standard
State Implementation Plan SIP
State of the Lake Superior Basin Reporting Series SOTLSBRS
State of the Lakes Ecosystem Conference SOLEC
State Shoreland Management Plan
Statute
Storm Sewers
Storm Water
Stressor
Sulfur Dioxide SO2
Sunsetting
Superfund
Superfund Amendment Reauthorization Act SARA
Superior Lakewatch
Superior Work Group
Surface Water

St. Louis River Management Plan
A local management plan developed by the St. Louis River Board to provide adequate protection to the Whiteface, Cloquet, and St. Louis rivers' ecosystems in the areas of land use, forestry management, and land acquisition. Once implemented, the plan will result in increased lot sizes, a no-cut zone along the river corridor, mandated forestry management plans, and public purchase of 22,000 acres of river front land. Also known as the "St. Louis, Cloquet, Whiteface Corridor Management Plan."

St. Louis River Remedial Action Plan St. Louis River RAP
A two-state (MN and WI) group representing industry, environmental groups, academic institutions, government, researchers, and community leaders coordinated by the MPCA and WDNR. Their goal is to develop a plan to combat pollution sources and to protect natural areas on the St. Louis River, an Area of Concern and the largest U.S. tributary to Lake Superior. Related Program - Remedial Action Plan

St. Louis Riverwatch
A citizen-based water quality monitoring, outreach, and education program administered by the MPCA. Students and teachers from the communities along the river conduct water chemistry tests and survey the benthic invertebrate community as well as monitor frog populations and sediment toxicity. See also River Watch.

Science Advisory Board SAB
A binational advisory group that provides advice on the adequacy of Great Lakes science and research to the International Joint Commission and the Water Quality Board. The board is responsible for developing recommendations on all matters related to research and the development of scientific knowledge pertinent to the identification, evaluation, and resolution of current and anticipated problems related to Great Lake water quality. Related Program - Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, International Joint Commission

Scientific and Natural Areas SNA
These are areas set aside to preserve the ecological diversity of Minnesota's natural heritage. They include landforms, fossil remains, plant and animal communities, rare and endangered species or other biotic features, and geologic formations. The areas are preserved for scientific study and public edification as components of a healthy environment. The program is administered by the MN DNR, Division of Fish and Wildlife.

Sea Grant
See Minnesota Sea Grant and National Sea Grant College Program.

Sea Lamprey
An exotic, eel-like animal that attaches to fish with a sucking disk and sharp teeth. A native of the Atlantic Ocean, the lamprey made its way into all the Great Lakes following the opening of the Welland Canal in 1829 and its deepening in the 1900s. By the 1930s, sea lamprey were found in all of the Great Lakes. During the 1940s and 1950s, lamprey caused the collapse of lake trout, whitefish, and chub populations in all the Great Lakes with the exception of Lake Superior. It has been estimated that one sea lamprey can kill up to 40 pounds of lake trout during its lifespan. See also Sea Lamprey Control Program.

Sea Lamprey Control Program
The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Department of Fisheries and Oceans in Canada work together, under the direction of the Great Lakes Fishery Commission, to minimize sea lamprey populations in the Great Lakes. Lamprey are controlled by applying a selective toxicant, TFM, to streams during the lampreys most vulnerable life stage. Other control techniques include barriers, pheromone release, and sterilization of male lamprey.

Secchi Disk Depth SDD
An estimate of the transparency of a lake, obtained by lowering a small (20 cm) disk into the water until it is no longer visible and noting the depth at which it disappears from view. Oligotrophic lakes are typically more transparent (and have a larger Secchi depth) than more productive, or eutrophic lakes. See also Superior Lakewatch.

Secondary Treatment
The second step in most publicly-owned treatment systems, where bacteria consume the organic parts of the waste.

Section 10 10
Refers to federal statute Section 10 of the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899.

Section 118 118
A term used to refer to federal regulation Section 118 of the Clean Water Act that identifies program requirements for the Great Lakes. Related Program - Clean Water Act

Section 305 (b) 305(b)
A report required by the Clean Water Act on the status of fishable, swimmable waters. The states submit a biennial report to the EPA, which compiles the reports into a report to Congress. Related Program - Clean Water Act

Section 319 319
A term used to refer to federal regulation Section 319 of the Clean Water Act that identifies the program requirement for nonpoint source management programs. Related Program - Clean Water Act

Section 401 401
A term used to refer to federal regulation Section 401 of the Clean Water Act that requires water quality certification by the appropriate state agency, for example, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. Under 401, no federal permit to discharge pollutants into the waters of the U.S. is valid unless the state where the discharge occurs grants or waives its right to certify that the permit will not violate the state water quality standards. A federal agency cannot issue a permit when the state has denied water quality certification. Related Program - Clean Water Act

Section 402 402
A term used to refer to federal regulation Section 402 of the Clean Water Act that identifies permit requirements for point source discharge, known as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System. Related Program - Clean Water Act

Section 404 404
A term used to refer to federal regulation Section 404 of the Clean Water Act that outlines permit requirement for dredging and other filling activities in waters of the U.S.. This is the primary federal law that regulates activities affecting wetlands. The Section 404 program is administered by the Army Corps of Engineers in accordance with the EPA. Related Program - Clean Water Act

Section 6217 6217
A federal regulation that is a part of the Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments of 1990 entitled, Protecting Coastal Waters. This provision requires states with Coastal Zone Management Programs that have received federal approval under Section 306 of the Coastal Zone Management Act, to develop and implement Coastal Nonpoint Pollution Control Programs. These programs are to be used to control sources of nonpoint pollution which impact coastal water quality. Related Program - Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments of 1990, Coastal Zone Management Act

Sediments
Soil particles that are or were at one time suspended in and carried by water as a result of erosion and/or resuspension. The particles are deposited in areas where the water flow is slowed such as in harbors, wetlands, and lakes.

Seiche
Seiches are lakewide displacements of water that are wind-induced. Water pushed by the wind can pile up on shore causing noticeable increases in water depth. When the wind is reduced the water mass continues to slosh back and forth like water in a bathtub. The Seiche is also the name of Minnesota Sea Grants quarterly newsletter.

Sequencing
A term used in wetlands regulations to define a process that involves avoiding, minimizing and mitigating impacts. Related Program - Wetland Conservation Act, Wetland Conservation Act Rules

Shorelands
Refers to Minnesota lands located 1000 feet from the ordinary high water level of a lake, pond, or flowage and 300 feet from a river, stream or the landward extent of floodplains.

Shoreland Management Program
A Minnesota program administered by a local government unit that meets minimum standards and criteria for the subdivision, use, and development of the shorelands of public waters.

Sigurd Olson Environmental Institute
A regional, private, non-profit organization of Northland College in Ashland, WI. Its mission is to protect environmental quality in the greater Lake Superior region and to build a future that is ecologically, socially, and economically sustainable.

Site-Specific Criteria
Water quality criteria that have been developed to be specifically appropriate to the water quality characteristics and/or species composition at a particular location. Related Programs - Great Lakes Initiative, National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System

Soil and Water Conservation Districts SWCDs
Local county units of government in Minnesota that assist landowners with implementation of soil and water conservation measures and practices. Related Programs - Board of Water and Soil Resources

Soil Conservation Service SCS
See Natural Resources Conservation Service.

Source Reduction
A term that means reducing pollution at its source. It includes management systems, technologies, and other practices which reduce or eliminate the amount of any hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant entering any waste stream or otherwise released into the environment prior to recycling, treatment, or disposal. The term includes equipment or technology modifications, reformulation or redesign of products, substitution of raw materials and improvements in housekeeping, maintenance, training or inventory control. See also Pollution Prevention. Related Program - Pollution Prevention Strategy, Clean Water Act, Great Lakes Initiative

Special Designation
As part of the Binational Program to Restore and Protect the Lake Superior Basin, governments are encouraged to make special designations which: favor zero discharge of human made toxins and protect and enhance the unique character and pristine nature of the lake basin. The U.S. policy on special designation includes enhanced anti-degradation approaches (including best available technology) for new or proposed expansions to facilities. Related Program - Binational Program

Standard
See water quality standard.

State Implementation Plan SIP
A Minnesota state plan that sets out the process for complying with the Clean Air Act requirements. If approved by the EPA it will give Minnesota the authority to run the federal clean air program in the state. Related Programs - Clean Air Act

State of the Lake Superior Basin Reporting Series SOTLSBRS
A series of reports prepared by the Superior Work Group that will communicate progress on the Lake Superior Binational Program. Volume II is currently being prepared. When completed, the series will consist of 5 volumes.

  • Vol I Introduction to the Basin, Its Economy, and Its Inhabitants;
  • Vol II Lakewide Management Plan (Stages I-IV);
  • Vol III Lakewide Management Plan for Nonchemical Stressors;
  • Vol IV Ecosystem Principals and Objectives for Lake Superior;
  • Vol V Comprehensive Management Plan to Protect the Lake Superior Ecosystem (an amalgamation of volumes I-IV).
Related Program - Lake Superior Binational Program, Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement

State of the Lakes Ecosystem Conference SOLEC
A conference sponsored by Environment Canada and EPA, held in 1994, to review and make available information on the state of the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem. A major purpose of the conference was to cooperate in implementing the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement by supporting better decision-making through improved availability of information on the condition of the living components of the system and the stresses which affect them. Six working papers were prepared as background for the conference.

State Shoreland Management Plan
See Shoreland Management Program.

Statute
An enactment of the legislative body of a government that is formally expressed and documented as a law.

Storm Sewers
The underground infrastructure designed to collect storm runoff from urban areas which is typically not treated by sewage treatment facilities before discharged into nearby surface waters. Storm sewer runoff has been found to be a major contributor to nonpoint source pollution in the Great Lakes.

Storm Water
Rainwater runoff, snow melt runoff, surface water runoff and discharges that are collected by storm sewers. Related Program - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, CFRs, Minnesota Rules

Stressor
Any chemical, physical, or biological entity that can induce adverse effects on individuals, populations, communities, or ecosystems.

Sulfur Dioxide SO2
A chemical compound that when emitted to the atmosphere is considered to be a major component of acid rain. One of the criteria pollutants regulated by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, SO2 is emitted mainly by anthropogenic sources. Sources include industrial point sources, such as coal fired electric utilities.

Sunsetting
A process to restrict, phase out, and eventually ban the manufacture, generation, use, storage, discharge, and disposal of a persistent toxic substance.

Superfund
See Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act and Minnesota Environmental Response and Liability Act.

Superfund Amendment Reauthorization Act SARA
See Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act

Superior Lakewatch
A binational organization coordinated by the Lake Superior Center, the Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy, and the Sea Grant Offices of Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota that offers volunteers the opportunity to help in monitoring the water quality of Lake Superior by measuring Secchi disk depth throughout the Lake.

Superior Work Group
A binational organization that assembles technical and scientific professionals from each of the six jurisdictions (U.S. and Canada) and key national agencies surrounding Lake Superior to coordinate Binational Program implementation. Related Programs - Binational Program

Surface Water
All water above the surface of the ground including, but not limited to lakes, ponds, reservoirs, artificial impoundments, streams, rivers, springs, seeps, and wetlands.

 

 

 

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