Rivers, streams, lakes, or any body of water
into which wastewater is discharged.
The EPA's regional office that covers Illinois, Indiana,
Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin. Related Program - Environmental
Regional Environmental Monitoring and
Assessment Program REMAP
Monitoring and Assessment Program work on a regional scale. The St. Louis
River is a Great Lakes example of a REMAP study. Cooperators include MED,
GLNPO, NRRI, MPCA,
UWS, and EPA Region 5. Related Programs - Environmental
Protection Agency, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
A type of general
permit that may be issued by a division or district engineer (Army
Corps of Engineers), after compliance with other procedures, for activities
in navigable waters of the U.S. or wetlands. Related
Program - Section 404, 33 CFR
outline specific procedures developed by federal or state agencies which are used
to implement laws.
Remedial Action Plan RAP
These are federally-mandated local plans designed to restore environmental quality
to Areas of Concern on the Great
Lakes (there are 8 in Lake Superior and there were
initially 43 in the U.S. and Canada). The Areas of Concern were identified for
their persistent pollution problems. Remedial Action Plans were called for by
a protocol added to the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement
in 1987. Related Program - Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement
Report to Congress on Toxic Air Deposition to the Great Waters
See Great Waters Study.
The time required for a water body to exchange its entire volume
of water. Lake Superior takes about 173 to 191 years to
flush its entire volume. This is an important factor used in determining the residence
time of toxic pollutants in the lake. Also referred to
as flushing time.
and Recovery Act RCRA
A federal law that established a comprehensive
cradle to grave system for regulating hazardous waste.
found along any stream or river. These areas characteristically have a high water
table and are subject to periodic flooding and influence from the adjacent
Rock or other large material
that is placed to protect streambanks or lakeshores from erosion
due to runoff or wave action.
A complex process by which scientists determine the harm that a substance, activity,
lifestyle, or natural phenomenon can inflict on human health or the environment.
The process involves analyzing scientific data to describe the form, dimension,
and characteristics of risk. Assessments are usually predictive estimates of how
risky a particular situation is. See also risk management,
ecological risk assessment comparative
by which risk assessment results are used with other
information to make regulatory decisions. Risk management asks, What shall we
do about this risk? See also risk assessment and ecological
such as education, regulation, or remediation, that reduces the adverse effects
of exposure to risks from a substance, activity, lifestyle, or natural phenomenon.
Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899
A federal statute
that allows the Army Corps of Engineers to regulate the
creation of obstructions and filling of navigable waters
of the U.S. (33 U.S.C 401-413).
A citizen-based volunteer water monitoring, education and outreach program on
Lake Superior sponsored by the EPA.
The primary emphasis of the program is to work with secondary school teachers
and students to incorporate River Watch concepts into existing course curricula.
Also see St. Louis Riverwatch.
See Eurasian ruffe.
The Ruffe Control Task Force Committee
(appointed by the Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force)
developed this integrated plan encompassing the legal requirements mandated by
the Non-indigenous Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and Control
Act of 1990 to control the Eurasian ruffe. The program
provides assessment and control measures including range reduction by chemical
treatments, prevention of ballast water transport, and monitoring and surveillance.
The plan also emphasizes research and public education as essential components
of a ruffe control effort.
Ruffe Control Task Force Committee
An organization representing academic, business, shipping, fisheries
management, and fishing interests Great Lakes-wide that developed a five-part
plan aimed at controlling the spread of ruffe to western Lake
Superior. Chaired by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service,
this task force was established in 1991 by the Great Lakes