A federal/provincial agreement under which Canada's obligations to the
Canada/U.S. Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement
are coordinated and implemented. This 1994 agreement lists and defines
50 commitments specific to the restoration, protection, and conservation
of the Great Lakes. Related Programs - Great
Lakes Water Quality Agreement
Canadian Environmental Protection
A 1988 federal act designed to protect the people
and environment of Canada from the effects of toxic substances.
A substance that is known or suspected
to cause cancer.
Causal (Candidate Critical) Pollutants
A term used to classify substances that are likely to harm Lake Superior and its
biota, but that have not been designated as critical pollutants.
This term has been eliminated from the Lake Superior Lakewide
Center for Lake Superior Environmental
The original name for the Lake
Superior Research Institute. Related Programs - University of Wisconsin-Superior
Center for Water and the Environment CWE
One of three centers within the University of Minnesota's Natural
Resources Research Institute. CWE provides basic environmental information
essential to safe and sustainable natural resource development. Related Programs
- Natural Resources Research Institute
A critical pollutant that was
used as a pesticide until banned by the U.S. in 1983 (except for use in controlling
underground termites). Chlordane bioaccumulates in the
food chain. Concentrations are highest in fat and liver tissue of predatory species.
It has been detected in lake trout and other wildlife. Related Programs - Binational
Chlorinated Organic Compounds
chemicals that contain chlorine, including many pesticides
and industrial chemicals such as PCBs, DDT, chlorinated dioxins and furans,
dieldrin, and hexachlorobenzene.
Also called organochlorines, chlorinated organics.
The addition of chlorine to water for disinfection. Used in drinking
water purification and sewage treatment prior to discharge.
A common, naturally-occurring element. One form of chlorine is a highly poisonous
gas that is typically used for water disinfection, sewage treatment and the manufacture
of bleach and other chemicals.
A comparative study in which organisms, that are subjected to different treatments,
are observed for a long period or a substantial portion of their life span.
A harmful and delayed response (such as death,
unusual growth, reduced reproduction, disorientation ) to a chemical that causes
adverse effects over a long period of time, relative to an organisms natural life
span. In standard laboratory tests an effect observed in 96 hours or more is considered
a chronic effect. See also toxicity test.
Clean Air Act CAA
Federal law originally passed in 1970 for the purpose of protecting and
enhancing the quality of the nation's air resources. See also the Clean
Air Act Amendments of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 7401-7671).
Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 -
1990 CAAA Related Programs - Clean Air Act
Federal legislation passed in 1990 that amended
the Clean Air Act, which resulted in major changes further
limiting the generation of air pollution in the United States. Significant sections
of the 1990 CAAA include:
Clean Water Act CWA
A federal law that identifies national requirements to protect the nation's
waters. Originally known as the Federal Water
Pollution Control Act. The act is divided into six Subchapters (33
The law provides for pretreatment standards, plans involving point and nonpoint source pollution,
and effluent limitations that satisfy the act's
I-Research and Related Programs
- Subchapter II-Grants for Construction of Treatment
- Subchapter III-Standards and Enforcement
- Subchapter IV-Permits and
- Subchapter V-General Provisions
- Subchapter VI-State Water Pollution
Control Revolving Fund
Clean Water Act Reauthorization CWAR
name for a federal legislative process to amend the Clean Water
Act. It is anticipated that the CWA will be reauthorized in the mid- to late-1990s.
In the Great Lakes Basin, coastal waters are defined
in the Coastal Zone Management Act as the waters within
the territorial jurisdiction of the United States consisting of the Great
Lakes, their connecting waters, harbors, roadsteads, and
estuary-type areas such as bays, shallows, and marshes. Related Programs
- Coastal Zone Management Act
Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments of 1990 CZARA
Federal legislation, the Coastal Zone Management Act was reauthorized
by Congress in 1990, resulting in states being asked to combat the problems of
coastal water quality, specifically nonpoint source pollution. CZARA also encourages states
to tackle issues such as wetland loss, cumulative and
secondary impacts of growth, increased threats to life and property from coastal
hazards, and dwindling opportunities for public access to the shoreline. Related
Programs - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,
Environmental Protection Agency
Zone Management Act CZMA
A federal law enacted in 1972 to deal with increasing stresses on the
nation's coastal areas, including the Great Lakes.
Administered by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,
the CZMA provides money, technical help, and policy guidance to states
for balancing conservation and development of coastal resources. Under
CZMA, states voluntarily develop their own Coastal Zone
Management programs. Related Programs - National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Code of Federal Regulations CFR
Federal regulations on how to implement federal law.
Occurs when heavy rainfall or thaw conditions overload
a sewer system designed to carry both waste and stormwater. The result is the
discharge of untreated sewage into receiving waters. Also
refers to the outfall structures themselves.
Comparative Risk Analysis
A procedure for ranking environmental
problems by their seriousness (relative risk) for the purpose of assigning them
program priorities. Typically, teams of experts put together a list of problems,
sort the problems by types of risk, then rank them by measuring them against standards,
such as the severity of effects, the likelihood of the problem occurring among
those exposed, the number of people exposed and the like. Relative risk is then
used to set priorities. See also risk assessment, risk management,
ecological risk assessment.
Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act CERCLA, Superfund
A federal law, better known as Superfund, enacted in
1980 to give the EPA authority and money to take corrective
measures and clean up hazardous waste sites. The 1986
Superfund Amendment Reauthorization Act outlined preferred
cleanup methods, including permanent on-site treatment.
Local Water Management Plan
See County Water Plan
Confined Disposal Facility CDF
providing a contained disposal area for contaminated sediments removed during
dredging operations. Related Programs - County Water Plan
The determination of how much it will cost
to achieve a benefit from, say, pollution control; and the comparison of this
amount to the cost of obtaining a higher or lower level of the benefit, or the
cost of using some other alternative method.
Council of Great
Lakes Governors CGLG
An organization comprised of the governors
of the eight Great Lakes States who declared their shared intention to
manage and protect the water resources of the Great Lakes
Basin through the Great Lakes Charter and the Great
Lakes Toxic Substances Control Agreement.
Great Lakes Industries CGLI
An organization that represents businesses with significant investments,
facilities, products, and/or services in the Great
Lakes Basin, including manufacturing, utilities, telecommunications,
transportation, financial, and trade. CGLI provides a focal point for
offering industry's views and resources. It strengthens regional efforts
to integrate social, economic, and environmental issues as a way to build
a more vital Great Lakes Basin.
of Great Lakes Research Managers
A binational advisory group to the
International Joint Commission to evaluate the status
of Great Lakes research.
Also called Comprehensive Water Management Plans.
These plans are developed by Minnesota counties to identify water resource problems
and provide sound planning to prevent future problems. A bill was passed by the
Minnesota State Legislature in 1985 encouraging counties to develop and implement
County Water Plans. Related Programs - Board of Water and
Soil Resources, Clean Water Act
See water quality criteria.
A group of air and water pollutants regulated by the
EPA under the Clean Air Act and Clean Water
Act on the basis of criteria that includes information on health and environmental
effects. Criteria pollutants include particulates, some
metals, organic compounds and other substances attributable to discharges.
Chemicals that persist at
levels that are causing or could cause impairment of beneficial
uses lakewide. Other critical pollutants will be added to the list, but the
Lake Superior Lakewide Management Program will first
focus on the same nine critical pollutants identified in the zero
discharge demonstration program (TCDD, OCS, HCB, Chlordane, DDT, Dieldrin,
Toxaphene, PCBs, and Mercury). See also Great Lakes Critical
Pollutants. Related Programs - Lakewide Management Program,
Binational Program, Zero Discharge