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Did Ja Know

Who Done It?


The bird, the baby, or the bathroom?

Where does the E. coli found along Lake Superior's Duluth Boat Club beach come from? In spring (April and May), E. coli likely originates from wastewater, while in early summer to fall (June to October), waterfowl become the primary providers.

Source: Ishii, S., D. L. Hansen, R. E. Hicks, and M. J. Sadowsky. 2007. Beach sand and sediments are temporal sinks and sources of

 Escherichia coli in Lake Superior. Environmental Science and Technology 41:2203-2209.


By Sea Grant Staff
December 2009

Return to December 2009 Seiche



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