Lake Superior's Non-Native Species (97)

Reproducing/Non-Native Fish in Lake Superior (17)

Common Name Scientific Name Family Also Known As Earliest Record Earliest Location Attributed Mechanism(s)
Alewife Alosa pseudoharengus Clupeidae Freshwater herring 1953 (or earlier) E. Lake Superior Canals
Brook silverside Labidesthes sicculus Atherinidae 2002 St. Louis River Unknown
Brown trout Salmo trutta Salmonidae 1883 Lake Superior, MI Stocked
Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Salmonidae King salmon 1967 Lake Superior, MI Stocked
Coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch Salmonidae Silver salmon 1966 Lake Superior, MI Stocked
Common carp Cyprinus carpio Cyprinidae 1897 Lake Superior, WI Stocked
Eurasian ruffe Gymnocephalus cernuus Percidae 1986 St. Louis River Ballast Water
Fourspine stickleback Apeltes quadracus Gasterosteridae 1986 Thunder Bay, ON Ballast Water or Live Bait
Freshwater drum Aplodinotus grunniens Sciaenidae Sheepshead Stocked (assumed)
Pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Salmonidae Humpies 1956 Thunder Bay, ON Stocked
Rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax Osmeridae 1930 Whitefish Bay, E. Lake Superior Canals
Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Salmonidae Steelhead 1895 W. Lake Superior Stocked
Round goby Apollonia melanostromus Gobiidae 1995 St. Louis River Ballast Water
Sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus Petromyzontidae 1938 Two Harbors, MN Canals
Threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus Gasterosteridae 1987 Thunder Bay, ON Ballast Water
Tubenose goby Proterorhinus marmoratus Gobiidae 2000 St. Louis River Ballast Water
White perch Morone americana Moronidae 1986 St. Louis River Ballast Water

 

Non-Reproducing/Non-Native Fish in Lake Superior (2)

Common Name Scientific Name Family Also Known As Earliest Record Earliest Location Attributed Mechanism(s)
American eel Anguilla rostrata Anguillidae 1970 Brule River, WI Canals
Atlantic salmon Salmo salar Salmonidae 1972 Lake Superior, WI Stocked

 

Lake Superior's Non-Native Aquatic Invertebrates (31)

Common Name Scientific Name Group Also Known As Earliest Record Earliest Location Attributed Mechanism(s)
Aquatic oligochaeta Paranais frici Oligochaeta
Aquatic oligochaeta Pristina acuminata Oligochaeta
Aquatic oligochaeta Ripistes parasita Oligochaeta 1987 Thunder Bay, ON Ballast Water
Aquatic oligochaeta Vejdovskyella intermedia Oligochaeta 1980 Unknown Ballast Water?
Asian clam Corbicula fluminea Bivalve 1999 St. Louis River Ballast Water
Bosmonid waterflea Eubosmina coregoni Zooplankton 1970s Ballast Water
Calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis Zooplankton 1960s Ballast Water
Caspia hydroid Cordylophora caspia Zooplankton
Cyclopoid copepod Cyclops strenuous Zooplankton Ballast Water?
Cyclopoid copepod Magacyclops virdis Zooplankton
European fingernail clam Sphaerium corneum Bivalve
European valve snail Valvata piscinalis Snail 1985 St. Louis River Ballast Water or Aquaria
Faucet snail Bithynia tentaculata Snail 2010 Washburn Marina, WI Ballast Water?
Gammarid amphipod Gammarus fasciatus Zooplankton 2001 Widespread Ballast Water
Gammarid amphipod Echinogammarus ischnus Zooplankton 2001 Thunder Bay, ON Ballast Water, Packaging or Other
Greater European pea clam Pisidium amnicum Bivalve 1985? St. Louis River Ballast (Solid)?
Henslows pea clam Pisidium henslowanum Bivalve 2005 St. Louis River Ballast Water?
Hump-backed pea clam Pisidium supinum Bivalve 2005 St. Louis River Ballast Water?
Lumholtz's waterflea Daphnia lumholtzi Zooplankton 2005 St. Louis River Ballast Water?
New Zealand mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum Snail 2001 Thunder Bay, ON Ballast Water
Pygmy pea clam Pisidium moitessierianum Bivalve 1985? St. Louis River Ballast Water?
Quagga mussel Dreissena bugensis Bivalve 2005 St. Louis River Ballast Water
Rusty crayfish Orconectes rusticus Crayfish 1991 Thunder Bay, ON Ballast Water, Live Bait, or Aquaria
Spiny waterflea Bythotrephes longimanus Zooplankton 1987 E. Lake Superior, ON Ballast Water
Testate amoeba Psammonobiotus communis Zooplankton
Testate amoeba Psammonobiotus dziwnowi Zooplankton
Tiger sideswimmer Gammarus tigrinus Zooplankton 1985? St. Louis River Ballast Water
Tubificid worm Potamothrix bedoti Oligochaeta
Tubificid worm Potamothrix moldaviensis Oligochaeta
Tubificid worm Potamothrix vejdovskyi Oligochaeta
Zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha Bivalve 1989 St. Louis River Ballast Water

 

Lake Superior's Diseases & Parasites (14)

Common Name Scientific Name Group Also Known As Earliest Record Earliest Location Attributed Mechanism(s)
Bacterial kidney disease Corynebacterium ssp. Fish disease 1975 (or earlier) Fish disease
Fluke Dactylogirus amphibothrium Fish parasite 1986 St. Louis River Fish parasite
Fluke Dactylogirus hemiamphibothrium Fish parasite 1986 St. Louis River Fish parasite
Fluke Ichthyocotylurus pileatus Fish parasite 1995 St. Louis River Fish parasite
Fluke Timoniella spp. Fish parasite
Fluke, trematode Neascus brevicaudatus Fish parasite
Furunculosis Fish disease Aeromonas salmonicida Fish disease
Parasite Sphaeromyxa sevastopoli Fish parasite 1995 St. Louis River Fish parasite
Parasite Tryponasoma acerinae Fish parasite 1986 St. Louis River Fish parasite
Parasite (microsporidian) Glugea herwigi Fish parasite 1930s Fish parasite
Parasitic Copepod Salmincola lotae Fish parasite
Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Novihabdovirus spp. Fish virus
Whirling disease Myxobolus cerebralis Fish disease Fish disease
Yellow perch parasite Heterosporis spp. Fish parasite

 

Lake Superior's Non-Native Algae (7)

Common Name Scientific Name Group Also Known As Earliest Record Earliest Location Attributed Mechanism(s)
Diatom Actinocyclus normanii fs. subsalsa Diatom
Diatom Cyclotella atomus Diatom
Diatom Cyclotella pseudostelligera Diatom
Diatom Skeletonema potamos Diatom
Diatom Thalassiosira baltica Diatom
Diatom Thalassiosira seissflogii Diatom
Red algae Bangia atropurpurea Red algae

 

Lake Superior's Non-Native Aquatic Plants (3)

Common Name Scientific Name Group Also Known As Earliest Record Earliest Location Attributed Mechanism(s)
Curlyleaf pondweed Potamogeton crispus 1988, 1996 Knife River Marina, MN; Washburn Harbor, WI With Fish or Recreational Boats
Eurasian watermilfoil Myriophyllum spicatum 1996 Chequamegon Bay, WI Aquaria or Recreational Boats
Water-cress Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum 1985 (or earlier) E. Lake Superior, MI Cultivation

 

Lake Superior's Non-Native Wetland Plants (23)

Common Name Scientific Name Group Also Known As Earliest Record Earliest Location Attributed Mechanism(s)
Narrow-leaved cattail Typha angustifolia Cattail 1972 (or earlier) E. Lake Superior, MI Canals or Cultivation
Oak-leaved goose foot Chenopodium glaucum Flower 1985 (or earlier) E. Lake Superior, MI Railroads or Highways
Marsh thistle Cirsium palustre Flower 1990 (or earlier) E. Lake Superior, MI
Indian balsam Impatiens glandulifera Flower 1984, 1998 Grand Marais, MN, Lake Superior, ON Cultivation
Yellow iris Iris pseudacorus Flower
Lupine Lupinus polyphyllus Flower 1982 Beaver Bay, MN Cultivation
Western water horehound Lycopus asper Flower
Yellow loosestrife Lysimachia vulgaris Flower
Purple loosestrife Lythrum salicaria Flower 1907 Duluth, MN Cultivation
Watermint Metha aquatica Flower
True forget-me-not Myosotis scorpioides Flower 1989 (or earlier) Widespread Cultivation
Spotted knapweed Polygonum persicaria Flower 1989 (or earlier) Sugar Loaf, MN
Creeping yellow cress Rorippa sylvestris Flower 1985 (or earlier) E. Lake Superior, MI Ballast (solid)?
Yard dock Rumex longifolius Flower 1901 Isle Royale, MI Cultivation
Bitter dock Rumex obtusifolius Flower 1985 (or earlier) E. Lake Superior, MI
Bittersweet nightshade Solanum dulcamara Flower
Field sow thistle Sonchus arvensis Flower 1996 (or earlier) E. Lake Superior, MI Cultivation
European brooklime Veronica beccabunga Flower
Redtop Agrostis gigantean Grass 1972 (or earlier) E. Lake Superior, MI Cultivation
Barnyard Grass Echinochloa crusgalli Grass 1972 (or earlier) E. Lake Superior, MI Cultivation
Rough-stalked meadow grass Poa trivalis Grass
White willow Salix alba Woody plant
Crack willow Salix fragilis Woody plant 1985 (or earlier) E. Lake Superior, MI Cultivation

This page last modified on July 31, 2014     © 1996 – 2014 Regents of the University of Minnesota     The University of Minnesota is an equal opportunity educator and employer.
NOAA logo UMD logo University of Minnesota University of Minnesota Extension logotype